Types and Use of Stone:

  • Ashurst, J. and Dimes, F.G., Stone Building: Its Use and Potential Today, Architectural Press, London, 1977.
  • Clifton-Taylor, A. & Ireson, A., English Stone Building, Victor Gollancz Ltd, London, 1983.
  • Hill, P R & David, J C E, Practical Stone Masonry. Donhead, London, 1995.
  • McRaven, C, Building with Stone. Storey Books, 1991.
  • Rockwell, P, The Art of Stoneworking: A Reference Guide. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993.
  • Stone Federation of Great Britain, Natural Stone Glossary, Linked Advertising & Marketing, London, 1991.
  • Warland, E.G., Modern Practical Masonry. Donhead, Shaftesbury, 2006.
  • Winkler, E.M., Stone in Architecture: Properties, Durability in Man’s Environment. 3rd Edition, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1994.


  • Cooke, R U and Gibbs, G B, Crumbling Heritage? Studies of stone weathering in polluted atmospheres: a report of research on atmospheric pollution and stone decay for the joint working party between the Cathedrals Fabric Commission for England in the joint environmental programme of National Power plc and PowerGen plc., National Power plc, Swindon, 1993.
  • Schaffer, R J, The Weathering of Natural Building Stones, Building Research Establishment Special Report, no. 18, HMSO, London, 1991 (First published 1932, HMSO, London).
  • Smith, B J and Warke, P A (ed), Processes of Urban Stone Decay. proceedings of SWAPNET ’95 stone weathering and atmospheric pollution network conference held in Belfast, 19-20 May 1995. Donhead, London, 1996.



  • Ashurst, J Ashurst, N, Practical Building Conservation Volume 1: Stone Masonry, English Heritage Technical Handbooks. Gower Technical Press, Aldershot, 1988.
  • Ashurst, J and Dimes, F, Conservation of Building and Decorative Stone. (2 vols) Butterworth Architecture, Oxford, 1990.
  • Baer, N S and Snethlage, R (Eds), 1997 Saving our Architectural Heritage: The Conservation of Historic Stone Structures. Report of the Dahlem workshop, Berlin, March 3-8, 1996. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester
  • Price, C, Stone Conservation: an overview of current research. Getty Conservation Institute, California, 1996.
  • Riederer, J (Ed), 8th International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Berlin 30 Sept – 4 Oct 1996, (3 vols.), S.N., Berlin, 1996 (also postprints of previous ICDCS papers).
  • Thiel, M-J. (Ed.), Conservation of Stone and other Materials. Proceedings of the RILEM/UNESCO Congress, Paris, June 29-July 1 1993, E & F N Spon, London, 1993.
  • English Heritage Stone Slate Roofing technical advice note (PDF)


  • Ashurst, J, ‘The Cleaning and Treatment of Limestone by the “Lime method”‘Monumentum, Autumn 1984, pp 233-57.
  • Ashurst, N., Cleaning of Historic Buildings (2 vols.), Donhead, London.
  • BRE Digest 280: Cleaning External Surfaces of Buildings, BRE, Watford, 1985.
  • Cooper, M., Laser Cleaning in Conservation: an Introduction. Butterworth Architecture, Oxford, 1998.
  • Clifton, James R (ed), Cleaning Stone and Masonry, Symposium, April 1983, ASTM Special Technical Publication 935, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, 1986.
  • Heller, Harold L, ‘The Chemistry of Masonry Cleaning’, APT Bulletin, Vol 2, No IX, 1977, pp 2-9.
  • Staehli, A M, ‘Appropriate Water Pressures for Masonry Clearing’, APT Bulletin, Vol 18, No 4, 1986, pp.10-17
  • Webster, R.G.M., Stone Cleaning and the Nature, Soiling, and Decay Mechanisms of Stone. Proceedings of the International Conference, Edinburgh, 14-16 April 1992, Donhead, Wimbledon, 1992.
  • Stonecleaning: A Guide for Practitioners
  • Maintenance and Repair of Cleaned Stone Buildings – Technical Advice Note 25



  • Martin, W, ‘Stone Consolidants: A Review.’ In: Teutonico, J.M (ed). A Future for the Past: a Joint Conference of English Heritage and the Cathedral Architects Association, 25-26 March 1994. James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd, London, pp.30-50


  • BRE Digest 370:Control of Lichens Moulds and Similar Growths, BRE, Watford, 1992.
  • Historic Scotland, Technical, Conservation, Research and Education Division,Biological Growths on Sandstone Buildings, Technical Advice Note 10, Historic Scotland, Edinburgh, 1998.

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